CVRI Scientists

Pulmonary biology and disease

Christopher D Allen, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Cellular dynamics of allergic immune responses underlying asthma

Summary:
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that afflicts tens of millions of people in the US and is particularly prevalent in children. In the majority of individuals with asthma, underlying allergic inflammation in the lung makes a significant contribution to the disease etiology. In order to understand the cellular and molecular events driving this allergic inflammation, we use advanced technologies, including two-photon microscopy and flow cytometry, to directly visualize and characterize inflammatory cells in the lungs as well as in lymphoid organs that 'prime' cells for immune responses in the respiratory tract. A particular emphasis of our research is on the generation and function of the IgE class of antibodies that contribute to allergic responses.

Kamran Atabai, M.D.
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Apoptotic cell and collagen clearance in health and disease.

Summary:
The accumulation of cellular and molecular debris in the extracellular compartment must be precisely regulated to preserve tissue integrity. We are interested in discovering the pathways that regulate tissue homeostasis through the removal of matrix molecules (collagen) and cellular debris (apoptotic cells) under normal and pathological conditions.

Paul D Blanc, M.D., MSPH
Division Chief

Research Interests:
Epidemiology of occupational lung disease, Asthma outcomes and Occupational toxicology

Summary:
Dr. Blanc's research addresses the impact of work-related and environmental exposures on human health, in particular respiratory diseases such as asthma, and COPD. His work focuses on the role that such exposures can play in causing disease and also how ongoing stressors can aggravate pre-existing disease and lead to disability

Homer A Boushey, M.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. Effects of viral infection on airway function. Regulation of airway mucous secretion and vascular permeability.

Summary:
Dr. Boushey's goal is to develop ways of curing and preventing asthma. His research takes advantage of new methods for detecting viruses and bacteria to examine relationships among the allergens and bacteria found in the environment, bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, the function of the immune system, and the development of asthma.

V Courtney Broaddus, M.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Role of apoptosis in asbestos-induced malignancy. Molecular interaction of asbestos fibers with mesothelial cells, specifically with regard to the role of cell surface adhesion receptors.

Summary:
Our lab studies the ways that tumor cells resist dying either when they are single cells or when they aggregate into clumps, called 3-dimensional spheroids. Our goal is to understand the strategies that resistant tumors use to avoid death and then find ways to bypass these defenses.

James K Brown, M.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Protease signaling

Summary:
In asthma, abnormal growth of airway smooth muscle cells contributes to difficult breathing. Mast cells are a prominent inflammatory cell in the airways of these patients, and during allergic reactions, mast cells release a substance called tryptase. Our work focuses on understanding how tryptase activates smooth muscle cells to grow.

Carolyn S. Calfee, M.D., MAS
Associate Professor

Research Interests:
Acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cigarette smoking, molecular epidemiology, biomarkers

Summary:
Dr. Calfee's primary academic focus is the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current research projects include: (1) the role of biomarkers in investigating ALI/ARDS pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis; (2) the role of cigarette smoke exposure in susceptibility to lung injury; and (3) novel treatments for acute lung injury.

George H Caughey, M.D.
Professor In Residence

Research Interests:
Regulation of lung and airway function by mast cell, leukocyte and epithelial proteases

Summary:
The Caughey lab is interested in understanding how protein-cleaving enzymes of mast cells, white blood cells, and cells lining the airway contribute to inflammation, host defense, tissue remodeling and barrier function in the lung. These studies relate to clinical problems in asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung transplantation and pneumonia.

Andy Chang, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Acute oxygen and metabolic sensing in cardiopulmonary regulation and disease

Summary:
To maintain optimal oxygen delivery to tissues, there is constant regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems by mechanisms that act on different time scales. On a fast time scale, a small chemosensory organ called the carotid body senses decreases in blood oxygen to increase breathing within seconds. The carotid body can also regulate cardiovascular function acutely, and carotid body hyperactivity contributes to disease progression in hypertension, heart failure, and metabolic syndrome. Using the mouse as our primary model, we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate the carotid body's ability to detect changes in blood oxygen as well as other metabolic signals, such as carbon dioxide and acid. One long term goal is to apply this knowledge to manipulating carotid body activity in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

Harold A Chapman, M.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules important to immunity and autoimmunity and extracellular matrix remodeling important to cell migration and tissue repair

Summary:
The Chapman lab is focused on basic and biomedical aspects of lung injury and tissue remodeling. Currently the lab is exploring the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung, a process whereby epithelial lining cells of the lung become reprogrammed to migrate and activate a fibrotic program. The process is also implicated in progression of lung cancer and the lab is exploring the mechanisms by which EMT contributes to lung fibrosis and cancer metastasis.

Pao-Tien Chuang, M.D. , Ph.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Cell-cell signaling during mammalian development and in postnatal physiology

Summary:
We use mouse as a model system to understand how embryos develop. This knowledge is critical for understanding the basis of human congenital defects. Moreover, many adult diseases have their origin in development. Thus, our studies have important implications for developing stem cell therapy and identifying the cause of cancers.

Ronald I Clyman, M.D.
Prof In Rsdn Ped & CVRI

Research Interests:
Cardiology, Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Neonatology, Neonatal Cardiology

Summary:
The ductus arteriosus is a vital fetal blood vessel that diverts blood away from the fetus's lungs and towards the placenta during life inside the uterus. After birth it is essential that the ductus arteriosus constricts and obliterates itself so that the normal postnatal pattern of blood flow can be established. Essentially all full term infants will have closed their ductus by the third day after birth. Preterm infants of less than 30 weeks gestation have a high chance of having a persistently open or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). If the ductus arteriosus remains open it contributes to the development of several neonatal morbidities: prolonged ventilator dependency, pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, chronic lung disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. Our laboratory has been studying the factors that regulate normal closure of the ductus arteriosus in full term infants and abnormal persistent ductal patency in preterm infants. Approaches used to study this problem are: controlled clinical trials, integrated whole animal physiology, in vitro organ culture, and cell biology

Leland G Dobbs, M.D.
Adjunct Professor

Research Interests:
Pulmonary alveolar epithelial development and response to injury, development of biomarkers for the measurement of lung injury

Summary:
Our laboratory studies the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. More than 99% of the large internal surface area of the lung (in humans ~100-150 m2) is lined by the alveolar epithelium, which is comprised of type I and type II cells, both of which are thought to be essential for mammalian life. Type I cells are very large squamous cells that cover more than 98% of the internal surface area of the lung, providing a narrow anatomic barrier between the air and blood compartments critical for efficient gas exchange. Type II cells are small cuboidal cells characterized by morphologically distinct secretory organelles, lamellar bodies, which contain the intracellular storage pool of pulmonary surfactant. In vivo, type II cells have the capacity to repair injured alveoli, acquiring at least some characteristics of the type I cell phenotype; under these conditions, they appear to transdifferentiate. Current accepted paradigms are that type I cells play a minimal functional role in the lung, but that type II cells perform major alveolar epithelial functions, including acting as progenitor cells during development and after injury. These paradigms do not adequately explain the results of recent experiments in our laboratory. We have developed novel methods for isolating and studying type I cells, which have previously have been resistant to study. Experiments with both in vitro and in vivo models suggest both a major role for the type I cell in ion and fluid transport and revised paradigms for both alveolar epithelial development and response to injury.

Joanne N Engel, M.D., Ph.D.
Prof In Residence

Research Interests:
Bacterial Pathogen-Host Cell Interactions

Summary:
My laboratory is interested understanding and exploiting the complex interplay of microbial pathogens with eukaryotic cells. To that end, we have investigated the key processes of microbial attachment and entry, intracellular survival, and host cell injury in the context of two important human pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Each of these microorganisms has developed a unique strategy for successful survival that involves subverting and exploiting host cell pathways. Dissecting these processes will allow the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines and will provide a unique window into eukaryotic cell biology.

David J Erle, M.D.
Professor of Medicine In Resid

Research Interests:
Asthma, allergy and inflammation; functional genomics

Summary:
Asthma is an increasingly common disease that affects about 20 million American children and adults. We are working to understand how proteins made by the immune system act within the lungs to cause some of the most important problems experienced by people with asthma. We also work on understanding newly discovered ways in which genes are turned on and off during health and disease.

John Vincent Fahy, M.D.
Professor In Residence

Research Interests:
Mechanism oriented studies of airway disease in human subjects

Summary:
Our research involves studies in people with airway diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic bronchitis. We are involved in clinical trials of new and established treatments on the one hand and in clinical studies designed to improve understanding of mechanism of disease on the other. For clinical trials, we often collaborate with other CVRI investigators or investigators at other institutions to compare the efficacy of new and established drugs. In conducting clinical trials, we are usually interested in exploring the effects of drugs not just on measures of lung function but also on measures of airway inflammation and remodeling. For this purpose, our laboratory has developed expertise in measuring markers of inflammation and remodeling in samples of sputum or in samples of airway fluids and tissue collected during bronchoscopy. Our lab is particularly experienced in measuring gene expression using gene chips and PCR and in quantifying pathology using a rigorous method of quantitative morphology called stereology.

For our research on mechanisms of airway disease, we are particularly interested in abnormalities of airway epithelial cells (the lining cells of the airway) and in abnormalities in airway mucus. Mucus abnormalities are common in lung diseases, and we are interested in finding out the specific mucus abnormalities that are characteristic of different lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we have begun to explore the physical properties of airway mucus - thickness, stickiness, and adhesiveness - using an instrument called a rheometer. The rheology of airway mucus has not been investigated in detail, but the research resources of the CVRI are well suited to making progress in this area. For example, in our clinical laboratories in the CVRI, we can collect induced sputum from volunteers in a carefully controlled way, and in our bench laboratories we can make careful rheological measures. These rheologic measures are allowing personnel in our lab to explore new strategies for breaking up the mucus that normally clogs airways.

Jeffrey R Fineman, M.D.
Professor in Residence

Research Interests:
Endothelial regulation of the pulmonary circulation during normal development and during the development of pediatric pulmonary hypertension disorders. Endothelial dysfunction in pediatric pulmonary hypertension

Summary:
Pulmonary hypertension, high blood pressure in the lungs, is a serious disorder in subsets of neonates, infants, and children. These include newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), children with congenital heart defects, and teenagers and young adults with primary pulmonary hypertension. The vascular endothelium (the cells that line the blood vessels in the lungs), via the production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide and endothelin-1, are important regulators of the tone and growth of pulmonary blood vessels. We utilize an integrated physiologic, biochemical, molecular, and anatomic approach, to study the potential role of aberrant endothelial function in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertensive disorders. To this end, we utilize fetal surgical techniques to create animal models of congenital heart disease, and investigate the early role of endothelial alterations in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow. Our clinical research interests include the use of pulmonary vasodilator therapy for pediatric pulmonary hypertension, and the use of peri-operative BNP levels as marker of outcome following repair of congenital heart disease.

Stanton A Glantz, Ph.D.
Professor of Medicine

Research Interests:
Mechanics of cardiac function (experimental and theoretical); environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco control policy

Summary:
Dr Glantz studies the effectiveness of different tobacco control strategies, particularly in the context of large state-run tobacco control programs, how the tobacco industry works to systematically distort the scientific process and animal and human studies of the effects of passive smoking on the heart.

Warren M Gold, B.A., M.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Pulmonary physiology, exercise physiology, pulmonary vascular obstruction, early diagnosis, dyspnea, asthma, COPD, diffusing capacity.

Summary:

Michael Gropper, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor In Residence

Research Interests:
Transfusion related acute lung injury, acute respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, ventilator associated pneumonia, resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, critical care outcomes

Summary:
My research interests are all focused on improving outcomes in critically ill patients in the ICU. These interests range from basic scientific questions regarding the mechanisms of harm from blood transfusions to asking about whether we efficiently utilize our precious resources, particularly at the end of life.

Akiko Hata, Ph.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Mechanisms of growth factor signaling in the control of cell growth and differentiation of vascular cells

Summary:
Research in the Hata lab focuses on the role of the BMP/TGF signaling pathway in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, control of vascular injury repair, and pathogenesis of vascular diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), restenosis, and atherosclerosis. Our approach is to study gene mutations identified among patients with IPAH or HHT and elucidate how these gene products affect the signaling pathway as well as vascular physiology using both cell culture and animal models.

Samuel Hawgood, M.B., B.S., M.D.
Chancellor

Research Interests:
Structure and function of surfactant apoproteins

Summary:
Our research activity is focused on the biology of the pulmonary alveolus with a particular emphasis on the structure and function of the pulmonary surfactant apoproteins. The human lung is made up of some 500 million alveoli each with a diameter of 200 microns and a septal wall thickness of only 5-8 microns. The large surface area provided by this foam-like architecture is ideal for rapid respiratory gas exchange but necessitates some unique biological answers to the threat to structural stability posed by the problem of high surface tension and the constant exposure to environmental pollutants, allergens and microbes. Pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein secretion of the alveolar epithelial type II cell, stabilizes alveolar structure at low transpulmonary pressures by reducing the retractile surface forces that would otherwise act to collapse the lung at end expiration. The surfactant apoproteins also act as components of the pulmonary innate defense system protecting the lung from inflammation and infection.

A derangement of alveolar stability, secondary to a developmental deficiency of surfactant, is the major factor in the pathogenesis of the respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS). My interest in the biology of surfactant grew from clinical experience in neonatology where RDS is a major cause of neonatal death. I moved to UCSF in 1982 as a research fellow with Dr. John Clements, the scientist who discovered surfactant in the late 1950's. He started his own laboratory, focused on the proteins associated with surfactant, in 1984. By 1985 our laboratory had identified three novel surfactant-associated proteins, now known as SP-A, SP-B and SP-C, and had derived their primary structures from full-length cDNA and genomic clones. In 1993, Erica Crouch in St. Louis described a fourth protein, SP-D. The higher-order structure, genetic regulation, metabolism, and function of these proteins have been the focus of our research since that time.

We now know that the surfactant proteins have important roles in the activity of surfactant, particularly the ability to rapidly spread phospholipids at the alveolar surface. The proteins also regulate surfactant turnover and metabolism in the alveolus and play a part in non-antibody mediated response to infection and inflammation in the alveolus. The biology of these proteins is complex and they apparently function as interacting hetero-oligomers to mediate their multiple effects on surfactant biology. At least two of the surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, are present in exogenous surfactants approved for clinical use and fatal human disease has been linked to inherited mutations in both these proteins. This clear link to human disease provides a strong rationale to obtain a detailed understanding of their structure and function.

Thomas B Kornberg, B.A., Ph.D.
Professor

Research Interests:
Developmental regulation

Summary:
My laboratory investigates the mechanisms that pattern developing organs. We carry out our studies on the fruit fly, as it offers many advantages with its ready accessibility to histological analysis and the ease with which genetic manipulations can be made. We focus on two systems – the fly wing and the fly lung. Both are model systems that offer opportunities to identify and characterize basic genetic and molecular mechanisms that are relevant to human development and disease.

Laura L Koth, M.D.
Associate Professor

Research Interests:
Sarcoidosis Granulomatous Lung Diseases T cells Monocytes chemokines

Summary:
Dr. Koth's research program is structured around the study of samples from human research studies. With the breath of research techniques that can be applied to human samples to learn about disease, Dr. Koth is taking a direct approach in the study of lung diseases. Dr. Koth's current focus involves understanding the inflammatory disease called sarcoidosis. This is not a disease as common as asthma, but it affects both young and middle aged people and causes significant morbidity and mortality. More awareness and funds are needed if we hope to understand the complicated biology of the disease. For example, many of the main immune subsets of the body are abnormally regulated in this disease. Most research has focused on the traditional T-cell. For example, it is thought that specific T cells are very activated and making inflammatory products which are contributing to and continuing the disease. However there are other immune cells that have not been studied adequately. Dr. Koth's lab has taken an active interest in these other types of immune cells. One reason for this is that we have identified, using Genomics research, that specific transcripts in the blood actually predict whether a specific patient will have progressive disease or not. She and her lab are now pursuing a line of investigation to understand where this 'biomarker message' is coming from in order to be able to stop it.

Dr. Koth's lab is also interested in using state-of-the-art technology to think about new therapies for this disease. We are looking into cutting-edge translational methods of expanding a type of immune cell responsible for down regulating the inflammatory process of the body. To perform these experiments in clinical trials will require significant financial support and we are seeking this input in order to move this very exciting potential treatment forward. The other aspect of my research program includes the development of a 'center of excellence in sarcoidosis'. This program will be designed to include both excellence in clinical care and novel clinical studies. Developing clinical care standards is an important area in managing sarcoidosis patients since sarcoidosis is a chronic disease that may be active for 10-20 years or more. Thus, a full-service clinical care program would facilitate the creation of clinical management tools and treatment regimens (developed as products from clinical trials networks) to address three arms of care in sarcoidosis: 1) organ damage, 2) symptom control, and 3) psychosocial aspects of living with the disease.

Stephen C Lazarus, M.D.
Professor of Clinical Medicine

Research Interests:
Role of inflammation in asthma and COPD, mucus hypersecretion.

Summary:
Asthma affects 5-10% of the US population, and deaths from asthma have increased for several decades. COPD is the 4th leading cause of death in the US. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these diseases and how best to treat them will contribute to better outcomes.

Dengke Ma, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Genetic approaches to understanding physiology and diseases, oxygen-modulated metabolism and behavior; brain-heart-lung interaction and interoception; ischemic disease and tolerance; novel genes and pathways evolutionarily conserved in C. elegans and humans.

Summary:
As humans, we drink when thirsty, eat when hungry, and increase our breathing and heart rates when short of oxygen. How do we (our bodies) know when and how to respond to changes in internal bodily states (e.g. loss of nutrient or oxygen)? Genes and traits that facilitate such underlying mechanisms confer great advantages for animal survival and are strongly selected for during evolution. Using both C. elegans and tractable mammalian model systems, we seek to understand the molecular, cellular and neural circuit basis of how animals sense and respond to changes in internal metabolic and energetic states to elicit behavior and maintain homeostasis. Dysfunction of these fundamental physiological processes leads to many disorders, including obesity, diabetes, neurological and cardiovascular diseases.

Michael J Mann, M.D.

Research Interests:
1. Molecular/cellular biology and molecular genetics of atherosclerosis and heart failure. 2. Development of hybrid surgical and molecular/cellular therapies for heart disease. 3. Stem and progenitor cell transplantation for cardiovascular regeneration. 4. Cardiovascular tissue engineering. 5. Reduction to clinical practice of current methods in genetic, molecular and cellular disease intervention. 6. Novel targeted molecular therapies for lung cancer. 7. Molecular profiling of cancers for personalized medicine. 8. Development of novel methods of in vivo/ex vivo gene therapy and gene transfer. 9. Novel approaches to therapeutic neovascularization for coronary and peripheral ischemic disease. 10. Cardiovascular cell cycle biology. 11. Myocardial gene therapy.

Summary:
Dr. Mann's research focuses on the molecular and cellular biology of heart disease with an emphasis on practical ways to develop new treatments for heart failure. These involve potential gene and molecular therapies, combinations of molecular and cell-based treatments with surgical reconstruction, and evaluation of novel materials for the development of bioartificial replacements of lost or damaged heart tissue.

Michael A Matthay, M.D.
Professor In Residence

Research Interests:
Alveolar epithelial transport under normal and pathologic conditions. Resolution of pulmonary edema Mechanisms of Acute Lung Injury

Summary:
My research program is focused on identifying mechanisms responsible for fluid transport across the alveolar epithelium using cell, molecular, and in vivo models. In addition, our group is focused on understanding the mechanisms responsible for the development and resolution of pulmonary edema and acute lung injury in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure. The studies include experimental and human-based studies designed to understand the pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure and to test potential new therapies. The work is supported primarily by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Tien Peng, M.D.
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Developmental pathways in the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis

Summary:
Our laboratory is interested in studying how key developmental pathways continue to persist in adulthood to maintain normal homeostatic organ function. We are particularly focused on the mesenchymal cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, pericytes, and etc.) that are poorly understood and lack precise anatomical definition, but are integral to the structural integrity and function of adult organs such as the lung.

Jason R. Rock, PhD
Assistant Professor

Research Interests:
Stem cells in lung development, maintenance, and disease

Summary:
We investigate how the many epithelial and stromal cell types of our lungs are generated during development, maintained for a lifetime and regenerated following injury. To do this, we use in vivo and in vitro models to identify and test the progenitor capacity of putative stem cell populations. We posit that aberrant stem cell behaviors explain many features of common lung diseases such as mucous cell hyperplasia and pulmonary fibrosis. For this reason, we study the molecular mechanisms and environmental influences (i.e., niche) that regulate the division and differentiation of stem cells along various lineages. Our ultimate goal is to identify genetic, molecular and cellular therapies for the treatment of lung disease.

Ian Bass Seiple, Ph.D.
Assistant Prof in Residence

Research Interests:
Synthesis of biologically active small molecules

Summary:
Despite centuries of innovation, chemistry is often still the limiting factor in the development of small molecule drug candidates, molecular probes, or novel chemical libraries. Many molecules that have tremendous biological potential are challenging to modify with known chemical methodologies. The overarching goal of our program is to develop practical methods for the synthesis of molecules that have previously been inaccessible. Many of our current projects are focused on the synthesis of novel antibiotics that can be used to treat life-threatening infections of the heart, lungs, and upper respiratory tract. 

Dean Sheppard, M.D.
Professor and Chief

Research Interests:
In vivo function of integrins and molecular basis of lung diseases

Summary:
Dean Sheppard's laboratory studies how cells respond to and modify their surroundings using receptors called integrins. They have found important roles for integrins in lung and kidney fibrosis, septic shock, acute lung injury, asthma and stroke and are testing drugs targeting integrins in animal models and in people affected by these diseases.

Anthony K Shum, M.D.
Asst Professor in Residence

Research Interests:
Autoimmune lung disease, interstitial lung disease, ER stress, lung injury, lung fibrosis, lung autoantigens

Summary:
The Shum lab is interested in understanding the immune mechanisms that lead to lung inflammation and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune disorders. Through human and mouse studies, we seek to define the critical factors that lead to autoimmune lung disease in order to speed the development of diagnostic tests and treatments for patients.

David F Teitel, M.D.
Prof In Res

Research Interests:
Pediatric cardiology, developmental cardiovascular physiology, cardiac mechanics, pediatric interventional cardiac catheterization, computer technology in cardiology, heart center administration, medical education, digital technology in learning, bioinformatics.

Summary:
Congenital heart disease is extremely common, occurring in about 1% of all births. My goals are to advance our knowledge of heart function in such infants and children, and to develop new methods to treat them, using medicines and catheter based techniques rather than surgery.

Prescott G Woodruff, M.D., M.P.H.
Associate Professor

Research Interests:
Genomics, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Stereology, Epidemiology, Clinical Trials, Medical Education

Summary:
My research relates to two common lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and falls into three specific categories: 1) the identification of molecular sub-phenotypes of these diseases, 2) the elucidation of mechanisms of inflammation and remodeling in these diseases and 3) clinical trials of novel therapies.

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